The Hindu Newspaper Analysis–29-10-2020

 The two-front challenge

  • This article caters to the two front challenge posed by our hostile neighbors, namely Pakistan and China. We previously would focus on Pakistan more in this regard and thought Pakistan would be a greater threat.
  • Since the Doklam issue, post which the Galwan Valley clashes or the Ladakh region clashes took place and we came to know that China would be a bigger threat and a problem like the two front challenge is looking at us straight in the face.
  • Though the issue is resolved in the Ladakh region, military challenges remain in that region also when we focus on the LOC region against Pakistan, the situation there is deteriorating with increased ceasefire violations.
  • The Sino Pak alliance is not a new concept, it is rather an age old one and they have been cooperating in both strategic and military regard. We can understand with the fact 73% of Pakistan’s arms imports are provided for by China and they both conduct a military exercise called as ‘Shaheen’.
  • India should be prudent in this regard and needs to acknowledge the 2-sided threat, also build its capabilities accordingly. India should also acknowledge have one country takes advantage when the other is confronting India which is predominantly Pakistan.
  • India has certain dilemmas in this regard that it is suffering from, like:
    • Placing the number of troops in the borders
    • Enhancing the current position
    • Securing all the borders in this regard
    • To adopt an offensive strategy or defensive strategy?
  • India knows clearly that these threats cannot be ignored and a proper doctrine has to be prepared that will consider things like
    • Budget
    • Combat techniques
    • Technology
    • Weapons
  • Diplomacy plays an important role in this regard where the relations between the two nations can be taken forward in a positive way. Apart from this India should strengthen its ties with West Asia nations like Iran that has considerable influence on Pakistan or China.
  • India should also strengthen its maritime cooperation as this will extend good will. Russia must be kept close and due to USA friendship; it should not be avoided as Russia has influence on these nations than USA alone.
  • Quad and such groupings shouldn’t be given greater importance, and all things should be balanced in the right way.
  • The pressure on the nations should be eased on the nations. Political will is very necessary in this regard and the ruling Govt should reach out fragile areas like Kashmir and other to reduce terror infiltration.
  • India needs to rather focus more on Beijing than Islamabad as the Beijing is more powerful in this regard and Islamabad cannot afford a war like situation.

Bail reforms

  • Bail is document provided to the accused for a temporary release, sometimes on a condition. The author believes that the bail procedure needs to reformed and these reforms should be done in two avenues.
    • Judicial discretion and
    • Monetary surety bonds
  • Granting bail is a discretion of the judge and the same is granted to the accused. If the same is refused to the accused than it is refusal of personal liberty of the individual.
  • Granting bail is the rule and confining jail is the exception but now the scenario has been changed. There are several irrational scenarios that have come into picture.
  • The surety aspect when it comes into picture, it can be seen that it is overly charged, where most people cannot pay, and hence end up spending all of their lives in jail. Here we can also see Middlemen rising who provide these services to the people.
  • No accountability of the lower courts to the higher courts and no oversight by the apex courts has been one of the major reasons.
  • Hence the bail and conditions imposed have to be taken into consideration in the right way and the personal liberty of the people shouldn’t be infringed upon.

Positive side of farm laws

  • The farm laws have bought out several fears in the farmers and they can be as follows:
    • APMCs will be shut down
    • MSP will be stopped
    • Corporates will take over the agricultural land
    • Corporates will take over the agricultural sector
  • The negative effects of the farm laws have been spoken about by various analysts and experts. The author provides us several reasons why the laws have been bought out and how they will be helpful, they are as follows:
    • The gap between farm and non-farm incomes have widened from Rs. 25000 in 1993-94 to 1.42 lakhs in 2011-12
    • Reduction in demand which has led to decrease in the prices and increase in the stocks
    • Increase dependence on imports
    • Market failures that have led more dependence on MSP
    • Increase in MSP and subsidies added to it have done fiscal damage to the economy
  • The solutions through the laws are as follows:
    • Increase in competition for sales
    • Better value addition
    • Better value chain
    • More export of the commodities
    • Better processing facilities
  • The author also provides that MSP and APMC relation is not everything, fruits and vegetables are sold without the same,
  • If there is a level playing field is created between the APMC and the corporates than what is the purpose of the laws.
  • The trading criteria was provided in these laws through just a PAN card, meaning, agri-business can be started or done with only through a PAN card but the farmers demanded a stricter method. This law is good as anyone can provide agri-business in a better a manner and doesn’t have to go through procedures.
  • The author is also of the opinion that the contract farming is confused with corporate farming as the farmers can drop out of the scheme voluntarily and their land is not usurped nor sold or mortgaged.
  • This will also provide the farmers with diversification of the quality of their produce, export and direct sale of their produce, acquire new knowledge and capital and more farmer participation.
  • If the laws are implemented in the right spirit and looked at in the right way, the farm laws can be game changer and will double the farmers income in this regard.
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