Fundamental Rights

Fundamental Rights are defined in Part III of the Constitution from Articles 12-35. These rights are taken from the USA’s Bill of Rights. These are also described as the Magna Carta of India. These rights are protected and guaranteed by the Constitution and they can’t be taken away by an ordinary law passed by the legislature.

Following are the Fundamental Rights guaranteed by the Constitution:

Following are the fundamental rights that are available only to citizens, and not foreigners:

  1. Prohibition of discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth (Article 15)
  2. Equality of opportunity in matters of public employment (Article 16)
  3. Protection of six rights regarding freedom of: i) speech and expression, ii) assembly, iii) association, iv) movement, v) residence, and vi) profession (Article 19)
  4. Protection of language, script, and culture of minorities (Article 29)
  5. Right of minorities to establish and administer educational institutions (Article 30)


Following are the Fundamental Rights available to both citizens and foreigners:

  1. Equality before law and equal protection of laws (Article 14)
  2. Protection in respect of conviction for offences (Article 20)
  3. Protection of life and personal liberty (Article 21)
  4. Right to elementary education (Article 21 A)
  5. Protection against arrest and detention in certain cases (Article 22)
  6. Prohibition of traffic in human beings and forced labour (Article 23)
  7. Prohibition of employment of children in factories, etc. (Article 24)
  8. Freedom of conscience and free profession, practice and propagation of religion (Article 25)
  9. Freedom to manage religious affairs (Article 26)
  10. Freedom from payment of taxes for promotion of any religion (Article 27)
  11. Freedom from attending religious instruction or worship in certain educational institutions (Article 28)
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