- Any biogeographic region rich in biodiversity facing the threat of destruction is termed as a Biodiversity Hotspot.
- The term Biodiversity Hotspot was first coined by Norman Myers in his article “The Environmentalist” in 1988.
- He wrote another article “Hotspots: Earth’s Biologically Richest and Most Endangered Terrestrial Ecoregions” where he discussed the concept in detail.
- The objective to identify Biodiversity Hotspots on a global scale is to protect and conserve these biodiversity rich areas.
- There are total 36 Biodiversity Hotspots in the world.
Table 1: List of Biodiversity Hotspots
|North and Central America||1. California Floristic Province 2. Madrean pine-oak woodlands 3. Mesoamaerica 4. North American Coastal Plain|
|The Caribbean||5. Caribbean islands|
|South America||6. Alantic Forest 7. Cerrado 8. Chilean Winter Rainfal-Valdivian Forest 9. Tumbes-Chocó-Magdalena 10. Tropical Andes|
|Europe||11. Mediterranean Basin|
|Africa||12. Cape Floristic Region 13. Coastal Forest of Eastern Africa 14. Eastern Afromontane 15. Guinean Forest of West Africa 16. Horn of Africa 17. Madagascar and Indian Ocean Islands 18. Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany 19. Succulent Karoo|
|Central Asia||20. Mountains of Central Asia|
|South Asia||21. Eastern Himalayas 22. Indo Burma, India and Myanmar|
23. Western Ghats and Sri Lanka
|South East Asia and Asia Pacific||24. East Melanesian Islands 25. New Caledonia 26. New Zealand 27. Philippines 28. Polynesia-Micronesia 29. Eastern Australia Temperate Forest 30. South West Australia 31. Sundaland and Nicobar Islands of India 32. Wallacea|
|East Asia||33. Japan 34. Mountains of Southwest China|
|West Asia||35. Caucasus 36. Irano-Antolian|
India shares 4 major Biodiversity Hotspots in the world.
- Includes the entire Indian Himalayan region (also includes parts of Pakistan, Tibet, Nepal, Bhutan, China and Myanmar)
- High endemism of plants up to 31.6 % and that of Amphibians and reptiles 40% and 27.3% respectively
- Himalayan Quail, Cheer pheasant, Western Tragopan are some endemic species found here
- Includes Nicobar group of islands and south-east Asian countries of Singapore, Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei and the Philippines
- Some endemic species found here are hawk-eagles, Bali starlings, Pig-tailed langurs, Slender toads, Komodo dragons, Asian arowanas, and Proboscis monkeys etc
Western Ghats and Sri Lanka
- Includes Western Ghats and Sri Lanka
- Some endemic species are Lion tailed Macaque, crimson backed sunbird etc.
- Plant Endemism is 51.5% and that of Amphibians, Reptiles and freshwater fishes is 73%, 65.2% and 72.8% respectively
Indo- Burma and India
- Includes entire North-eastern India, except Assam and Andaman group of Islands (and Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia and southern China)
- Eld’s deer, Cat Ba langur, Fishing cat, Giant ibis, Mekong giant catfish are some endangered species present in this area
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