- Any biogeographic region rich in biodiversity facing threat of destruction is termed as a Biodiversity Hotspot.
- The term Biodiversity Hotspot was first coined by Norman Myers in his article “The Environmentalist” in 1988.
- He wrote another article “Hotspots: Earth’s Biologically Richest and Most Endangered Terrestrial Ecoregions” where he discussed the concept in detail.
- The objective to identify Biodiversity Hotspots on a global scale is to protect and conserve these biodiversity rich areas.
- There are total 36 Biodiversity Hotspots in the world.
Table 1: List of Biodiversity Hotspots
|North and Central America||1. California Floristic Province
2. Madrean pine-oak woodlands
4. North American Coastal Plain
|The Caribbean||5. Caribbean islands|
|South America||6. Alantic Forest
8. Chilean Winter Rainfal-Valdivian Forest
10. Tropical Andes
|Europe||11. Mediterranean Basin|
|Africa||12. Cape Floristic Region
13. Coastal Forest of Eastern Africa
14. Eastern Afromontane
15. Guinean Forest of West Africa
16. Horn of Africa
17. Madagascar and Indian Ocean Islands
19. Succulent Karoo
|Central Asia||20. Mountains of Central Asia|
|South Asia||21. Eastern Himalayas
22. Indo Burma, India and Myanmar
|South East Asia and Asia Pacific||24. East Melanesian Islands
25. New Caledonia
26. New Zealand
29. Eastern Australia Temperate Forest
30. South West Australia
31. Sundaland and Nicobar Islands of India
|East Asia||33. Japan
34. Mountains of Southwest China
|West Asia||35. Caucasus
India shares 4 major Biodiversity Hotspots of the world.
- Includes the entire Indian Himalayan region (also includes parts of Pakistan, Tibet, Nepal, Bhutan, China and Myanmar)
- High endemism of plants up to 31.6 % and that of Amphibians and reptiles 40% and 27.3% respectively
- Himalayan Quail, Cheer pheasant, Western Tragopan are some endemic species found here
- Includes Nicobar group of islands and south east Asian countries of Singapore, Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei and Philippines
- Some endemic species found here are hawk-eagles, Bali starlings, Pig-tailed langurs, Slender toads, Komodo dragons, Asian arowanas, and Proboscis monkeys etc
Western Ghats and Sri Lanka
- Includes Western Ghats and Sri Lanka
- Some endemic species are Lion tailed Macaque, crimson backed sunbird etc.
- Plant Endemism is 51.5% and that of Amphibians, Reptiles and freshwater fishes is 73%, 65.2% and 72.8% respectively
Indo- Burma and India
- Includes entire North-eastern India, except Assam and Andaman group of Islands (and Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia and southern China)
- Eld’s deer, Cat Ba langur, Fishing cat, Giant ibis, Mekong giant catfish are some endangered species present in this area